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Author Topic:   New VHF Radios from NAVICO with NMEA-2000
bluewaterpirate posted 11-16-2012 09:02 AM ET (US)   Profile for bluewaterpirate   Send Email to bluewaterpirate  
Hopefully Icom and Standard Horizon will move in the direction [of providing NMEA-2000 interfaces to their radios as these new NAVICO radios have provided as shown in the documents hyperlinked below].

Lowrance LINK-8


SIMRAD Wireless Handset


jimh posted 11-16-2012 09:49 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Tom--Thanks for the notice of these new models from NAVICO companies for VHF Marine Band radios with NMEA-2000 interfaces.

As you know, as I know, as the United States Coast Guard knows, a VHF Marine Band radio with digital selective calling features according to Class-D specificiation--the only fixed mount radio you can legally sell or buy in the USA--requires that the radio be interfaced to a source of position data (such as a GNSS receiver) in order to be useful for sending a distress message with position information, and the connection of radios with a NMEA-0183 interface has been a complete failure across the general boating public. The USCG reported an amazing statistic that 90-percent of the distress calls they received via DSC did not have a position sent with the distress call. The Coast Guard even went to the rather unusual step of writing a formal letter to NMEA to ask them if they could help out in getting better results in the interconnection process. The USCG was correct in asking for this, because the NMEA-0183 standard was not very good in regard to setting standards for the wiring connections. Every vendor provided the connections in a different manner, using different color codes, different signal names, and different connection devices. What a confusing mess!

By moving to a NMEA-2000 interface on the radio there is an expectation and great hope that the interconnection of the radio to the boat navigation system will become much simpler for the average boater. With the arrival of these new radios from NAVICO companies that have NMEA-2000 interfaces, we are seeing the new generation of affordable radios with these features.

I have long had a preference for Standard-Horizon VHF Marine Band radios, but that fine company has been slow to come out with a NMEA-2000 radio, and so, it seems, has Icom, another major radio brand. On the other hand, Lowrance has had a lot of experience with NMEA-2000. Lowrance was one of the very first marine electronics companies to become certified with NMEA-2000 products, and they really have led the way, at least led the way in affordable products with NMEA-2000.

The big question now for me in regard to the Lowrance LINK-8 VHF radio is its performance as a radio. A NMEA-2000 interface is great, but the primary mission is still to be an excellent radio. In this regard I don't have any experience with Lowrance, and I'd say that Lowrance has not established a significant track record in marine radios. The LINK-8 will have to establish its reputation as radio first, then as a radio with NMEA-2000 next.

The MSRP is $300, which should mean a selling price of perhaps as low as $250. That is a decent price for a radio with some features, but not a sale-of-the-century-deal.

The more expensive SIMRAD radio you mention also has an AIS receiver. This is another nice option, but that radio is priced much higher. In the United Kingdom it has a list price of £300, or about $475.

jimh posted 11-16-2012 09:57 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     

I just realized that the new Lowrance LINK-8 radio also has an AIS receiver! Wow, that is amazing. The LINK-8 is fantastically situated in the present marketplace of VHF Marine Band radios:

--DSC Class-D

--NMEA-2000 interface

--AIS receiver

--retail $300 price


That is a very impressive combination of features and price.

jimh posted 11-16-2012 10:13 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Here is the full blather on the LINK-8 from the NAVICO press release:

Lowrance, a world-leading brand in marine electronics since 1957 and GPS navigational systems since 1992, announced today its new fixed-mount, 25-watt Digital Selective Calling (DSC) VHF radio, the Lowrance Link-8. Equipped to receive Automatic Identification System (AIS) vessel data, the new VHF has an NMEA 2000® interface and is Class D compliant for global use. The Lowrance Link-8 combines reliable performance, a best-in-class LCD display and an unparalleled feature set—all at an exceptional price.

Designed to enhance safety on the water, the Link-8 includes a built-in, dual-channel AIS receiver that displays critical collision avoidance data from AIS-equipped vessels in range. Accessible information includes vessel name, type, call sign, MMSI number, IMO number, and draft and size, as well as vessel position, speed over ground (SOG), course over ground (COG), rate of turn, heading, status, destination and ETA. When connected to a compatible Lowrance multifunction display, the Link-8 enables an exclusive “Track Your Buddy” feature that connects DSC position polling via the NMEA 2000 network for GPS location display of up to three boating friends. Additional advanced capabilities include GPS navigation and Man Over Board (MOB) functionality.

“The Lowrance Link-8 delivers our signature reliability with advanced features for superior performance at a great price," said Louis Chemi, chief operating officer, Navico Americas. “Providing AIS functionality for enhanced safety and an NMEA 2000 interface for networking, the Link-8 VHF is the ultimate on-the-water communication device.”

The Link-8 VHF radio has a large, easy-to-view, 128 x 256-pixel LCD measuring 1.3 x 2.6 in. (3.3 x 6.6 cm) with adjustable backlighting, plus a large 57mm built-in speaker with 4 Watt output that allows for the connection of additional speakers. Delivering all USA, Canadian and International marine channels, the system provides easy access to all DSC functions. Designed for quick access to functions especially when safety is a concern, the new radio’s has an intuitive and efficient interface with a large rotary knob for simple channel changing, menu navigation and setting control. A best-in-class microphone offers six quick keys for simple and reliable helm operation, features an easy-grip rubber molding cover for secure holding and operation and also has an additional speaker. The VHF is also equipped with an extra large Channel 16 key, dedicated volume and squelch knobs, weather keys, selectable Dual and TriWatch modes, local and distant functions, and three user-selectable channels.

The Link-8 logs up to 10 distress calls and 20 individual DSC calls. DSC control keys include (priority) 16/9, WX, 3CH/+/- for quick channel changing, CALL, EXIT, SCAN and MENU. Additional system features include a rotary volume control with power on/off, hailer horn output with listen back capabilities, auto and manual FOG, all-channel priority and memory channel scans, 20 user-programmable names with MMSI, 10 weather channels with a 1050 Hz tone alert, RS232 and RS422 output and a second receiver for Channel 70.

The Lowrance Link-8’s ultra-rugged waterproof chassis complements the color and styling of award-winning Lowrance HDS® multifunction displays. Offering selectable 25/1-watt transmit power and NMEA 2000 and 0183 compatibility, it is waterproof to the IPx7 standard (submersible) and comes with a flush-mount kit and a sun cover. The Lowrance Link-8 radio is protected by a 2-year limited warranty, and is supported for an additional three years by the Lowrance 5-Year Advantage Program, which allows customers to upgrade to the latest technology, at a discounted price, in the unlikely event that a product fails or needs repair.

Available February 2013, the Lowrance Link-8 VHF can be purchased from authorized dealers and distributors throughout the United States and Canada

Lowrance LINK-8 VHF Marine Band radio with AIS receiver and NMEA-2000 interface

jimh posted 11-16-2012 10:38 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
By the way, I noticed on the product shot that a current position for the radio was being displayed. I thought to myself:

"Ahah! I can get the position of the factory that made the radio from those coordinates!"

I plotted the coordinates on Google Earth and was very surprised to see where they led. Open Google Earth and paste into the "Fly to" box the following coordinates:

36 45.299 N 174 42.492E

Quite revealing, eh?

daveweight posted 11-16-2012 01:30 PM ET (US)     Profile for daveweight  Send Email to daveweight     
Must have significance for someone.
Dave Weight
jimh posted 11-16-2012 03:07 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
One element of the new radio I noticed is the lack of soft keys for control. Soft keys tend to make the user interface work better. It will be interesting to see if the user interface on these radios follows any sort of lead from the user interface on NAVICO chart plotter and SONAR devices, so that in some way there might be some carry over from one device to another.

If the radio is nicely integrated with a NAVICO chart plotter it would be very cool. For example, if you see an AIS vessel and want to call it. Will the LINK-8 be able to make a call by hitting a button on a NAVICO chart plotter? That would be the best sort of integration. I guess we will have to wait and see what happens when you have a LINK-8 connected to a NAVICO chart plotter, say a Lowrance HDS series device, and the radio gets a DSC call.

ASIDE: It is great to see new products coming out in a niche market like recreational marine electronics when you consider how moribund the recreational boating market in general has been the past three years. Congratulations to NAVICO for having optimism about the future of recreational boating.

20dauntless posted 11-16-2012 08:44 PM ET (US)     Profile for 20dauntless  Send Email to 20dauntless     
Is the only functional difference between the Simrad and Lowrance models the ability to use a wireless remote mic?
jimh posted 11-17-2012 10:11 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
The specifications are a bit sketchy right now so a detailed comparison is not possible.

I don't see a wireless remote microphone as being a big feature on a small boat. On my boat you cannot be farther than about ten feet from the radio. I'd be worried about the wireless microphone bouncing overboard in rough weather.

jimh posted 11-21-2012 10:22 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
In addition to the radios mentioned above, NAVICO has another VHF Marine Band radio with NMEA-2000. The SIMRAD model RS12 VHF Marine Band radio is a reasonably priced radio with a NMEA-2000 interface. It does not have an AIS receiver. The MSRP of the SIMRAD RS12 is a modest $239.

The attraction of the RS12 is its NMEA-2000 interface. Connecting the RS12 to your chart plotter and your GNSS receiver will be very simple if those devices are also NMEA-2000 devices. One possible drawback to the RS12 is the main channel control knob. There is no rotary knob, but instead there are UP-DOWN arrow buttons. These controls will also be used for the user interface. In some instances use of a rotary knob for these functions will allow for faster and possibly easier user input.

jimh posted 11-21-2012 10:27 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Looking at the NAVICO radio line among their Lowrance and Simrad brands, we see the various models fall into these categories and prices:

RS12: NMEA-2000, no AIS = $239

LINK-8; NMEA-2000, AIS = $299

RS35: NMEA-2000, AIS, wireless remote = $399

jimh posted 11-22-2012 09:00 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
These modern radios with DSC and AIS actually have four separate receivers that are operating simultaneously:

--dedicated AIS Channel 1 (87B)

--dedicated AIS Channel 2 (88B)

--dedicated DSC Channel (70)

--regular VHF Marine Band channel as selected or being scanned, or VHF weather broadcast channels as selected

There is a lot happening under the hood in a modern VHF Marine Band radio!

Also, many new VHF Marine Band radios are fitted for compliance with the European ATIS or automatic transmitter identification system. ATIS operation requires its own ATIS callsign, somewhat like a vessel's MMSI, which is generated from the vessel's radio callsign by a numerical encoding. It is used on inland water ways in Europe in certain countries. At the end of every voice transmission from the radio, the ATIS numerical callsign is appended and transmitted in a short burst of frequency-shift keying. This positively identifies the source of the transmission.

The ATIS is an outgrowth of the Regional Arrangement on the Radio-communication Service for Inland Waterways or RAINWAT. See

for more details. I mention the ATIS feature to demonstrate the complexity contained in these new radios. They contain features for global use. We are already familiar with the three sets of different band plans contained in the radio, allowing compliance with USA, Canada, and International band plans, and now a new layer of regulatory compliance, ATIS for inland water ways in Europe has been added. This in addition to the DSC receiver and demodulator, and the DSC encoder and transmitter. And don't forget the AIS receiver and demodulator.

I remember using a nice Motorola VHF Marine Band radio that was a crystal-controlled set. It only transmitted and received voice, and it only worked on a few channels. You had to buy a new crystal for each channel you wanted to add. That was VHF Marine Radio technology in the early 1980's. Today the radio technology is amazing and much more complex--and the radios cost less than they did 30-years ago!

[Deleted sidebar discussion on old radios which was taking over the thread. The thread is discussing the newest radios. Perhaps we can start a nostalgia thread for old radios--jimh]

jimh posted 01-28-2013 03:13 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
February is just a few days in the future, and the NAVICO radios described in this thread should be available soon. I noted that the front panel appearance of the Lowrance LINK-8 and the Simrad RS35 radios are remarkably similar. I have been looking for more details about the specifications of these two radios, but I have not found a really comprehensive listing of them. The Simrad RS35 offers more details, including a mention that the receiver intermodulation distortion rejection is equal to or greater than 70-dB.

I would be very interested to hear from anyone who has seen these radios in person, and, even better, someone who has bought one of these radios and connected it with their NMEA-2000 network.

bluewaterpirate posted 01-28-2013 03:36 PM ET (US)     Profile for bluewaterpirate  Send Email to bluewaterpirate     
Just saw some online pricing from BOE Marine.

Lowrance LINK-8 (DSC/AIS) $231
Simrad RS35 (DSC/AIS) $315
Simrad Remote Mic HS35 (Wirless) $148

jimh posted 01-29-2013 01:22 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Tom--Those prices look very good, particularly for the LINK-8 radio. If you install one of these, be sure to let us know how it works for you or your customer.
SC Joe posted 01-29-2013 03:02 PM ET (US)     Profile for SC Joe  Send Email to SC Joe     
[Mentioned a prior model of radio made by NORTHSTAR about eight years ago which had no NMEA-2000 interface.]
jimh posted 02-01-2013 12:11 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Joe's mention of Northstar radios reminds me of a rather ironic connection between these new NAVICO radios and Northstar radios.

NAVMAN, a New Zealand electronics company, was making a line of marine electronic devices, including radios, GPS receivers, chart plotters, and SONARs. They were a relatively small company, privately owned, and situated in New Zealand. The Brunswick corporation was on an acquisition spree, and thought that they might want to own a marine electronics company. Brunswick formed a subsidiary, Brunswick New Technologies (BNT), and bought NAVMAN in June 2004.

NAVMAN went from being a small start up, begun in a garage in 1986, to being a part of a global corporate conglomerate, Brunswick. There apparently was a huge culture clash from the very start of this merger. In 2006, about two years into the Brunswick corporate ownership, most of the senior executives and senior engineering talent from NAVMAN resigned. A year later NAVMAN was no longer profitable, and Brunswick changed course, selling off NAVMAN, at the same time reducing Brunswick New Technologies to just a few other holdings.

While Brunswick owned NAVMAN it was common to see Brunswick's boat builder house brands, like Boston Whaler, use NAVMAN as standard or optional electronic equipment on their boats. For a couple of years, around 2005 to 2006, the NAVMAN radios, sounders, and chart plotters were offered as factory installed options.

When BNT tossed NAVMAN overboard, the NAVMAN marine electronics operation was acquired by NAVICO, and some models continued to be sold for a short while under the NAVICO brand NORTHSTAR. NAVICO had also acquired LOWRANCE, and decided to consolidate their marine electronics brands into just three marques: Lowrance, Simrad, and B&G.

It is impossible to know if there is some old NAVMAN DNA in any of these new radios from NAVICO, but perhaps some of the engineers or some of the technology of NAVMAN have survived and continue to work for NAVICO.

David Pendleton posted 02-01-2013 03:35 PM ET (US)     Profile for David Pendleton  Send Email to David Pendleton     
Interesting. I always thought LOWRANCE was part of SIMRAD. I don't know where I got that notion from.
jimh posted 02-02-2013 12:22 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
David--LOWRANCE was an independent brand until rather recently. They sold out to NAVICO a few years ago. NAVICO collected a number of brands, and then they distilled the products down to just three marques or brands, each with a focused market:

--for smaller boats, particularly freshwater fishing boats, they make the LOWRANCE brand;

--for larger boats, ocean-going boats, they make the SIMRAD brand; and,

--for sailboats, they make the B&G brand

In this consolidation process a couple of brand names were lost, but not the technology or achievements of those brands. Those attributes were just rolled into the appropriate products in the remaining brands.

ASIDE: I used to have a NAVMAN F3100 fuel instrument, and I absolutely loved it. It was a very well designed device. It was a beautiful electronic accessory for my boat, and I still miss it. It was a great product. NAVMAN had a lot of very cool products that were unique and really market leaders. It is just a shame they were bought by Brunswick, turned into some corporate division, and sold off when Brunswick leadership changed direction. The founder of NAVMAN, Peter Maire, probably came out of the deal with millions of dollars, but I bet he resented what happened to his company and his vision for marine electronics. It has been sold off in parts to various other companies, and the spirit and vision of the New Zealand maritime national tradition has been completely discarded. It is too bad NAVMAN could not have survived with its New Zealand and maritime roots. Those Kiwis made very nice stuff.

David Pendleton posted 02-02-2013 01:47 AM ET (US)     Profile for David Pendleton  Send Email to David Pendleton     
Thanks for the clarification, Jim. I knew I recalled some relationship between the two.
jimh posted 02-02-2013 02:06 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
You can see the NAVICO branding distinctions in the difference between the LINK-8 and the RS35 radio. The RS35 radio has a feature for a wireless remote speaker-microphone-control head. That is a nice feature, but you certainly do not need a wireless microphone on a small boat. On a small boat there is probably no justification for a wireless mic; a microphone with a coiled cord that stretches a few feet is sufficient. So NAVICO makes the Lowrance version of the radio without the wireless microphone feature, and makes the Simrad version with that feature.
jimh posted 02-02-2013 11:04 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Not mentioned in the initial article, but worthy of note, is the SIMRAD radio model RS12. This radio combines the Class-D DSC VHF Marine Band radio with a NMEA-2000 interface, without the added AIS feature. The RS12 is probably going to be the lowest cost radio with NMEA-2000, as it is priced at under $200 at discounted retail.

On the other hand, the Lowrance LINK-8 looks like it will be priced around $235 discounted retail, so you can have an AIS receiver in your communication radio for only about $35 more. This makes the notion of having AIS not very expensive. It seems almost too little price differential to resist. If you go boating in areas with commercial ship traffic, the AIS receiver is useful to have.

jimh posted 02-02-2013 01:02 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
I already mentioned my strong interest in the NMEA-2000 features of these radios, but I want to explain more clearly my motivation. A DSC radio is of marginal use as a vessel position indicating system unless there is a real-time connection to a source of position information about the vessel. Prior to NMEA-2000 networking, the usual arrangement for getting position data to the radio was via NMEA-0183 serial data connections. The process of interconnecting two devices using NMEA-0183 is too difficult for the average boater to be successful. Indeed, it seems about one in ten can figure it out. Nine of ten cannot, based on the statistics of the United States Coast Guard.

By moving to a NMEA-2000 interface on the radio, the radio can be connected to a boat's NMEA-2000 network backbone, where typically there is a source of vessel position information available. This greatly simplifies the interconnection, because the NMEA-2000 standard removes about 90-percent of the roadblocks to making the physical, electrical, and logical connection. This should make it easier to integrate the radio with the position finding source, which is typically a receiver for the Global Positioning System (GPSr). With position data from a GPSr, a modern VHF Marine Band radio with digital selective calling to Class-D specification can include the boat position in digital radio transmissions. These transmission can be just routine messages sent to other boats, or they can be emergency alerts of distress. How much more useful to send a distress signal and include the boat's precise location! NMEA-2000 facilitates this.

Of course, one might say, how can we be assured the typical boat will have a NMEA-2000 network. You can't, but, it is becoming much more common to have NMEA-2000 networks on even small boats. A NMEA-2000 network only costs about $50 to build, and it engenders all sorts of advantages. Because all modern outboard engines of all brands except Mercury are now NMEA-2000 capable, and even those that aren't can be adapted by specialized gateway devices, it is becoming standard practice to have a boat's outboard engine connected to a NMEA-2000 network so that engine data can be displayed on multi-function gauges. On a boat that already has a NMEA-2000 network, the cost of adding a NMEA-2000 radio is not particularly high. About all that is needed is an additional Network T-Connector or an open port on a multi-device connector, and perhaps a short drop cable. Some of those components may already be in the box when you buy a radio that has NMEA-2000 capabilities.

As I mentioned earlier, there have been already a few marine radios with NMEA-2000 networking connections, but they have been limited to the most expensive models. With this new round of radios from NAVICO, we have a modern VHF Marine Band DSC Class-D radio with NMEA available for under $200. This brings NMEA-2000 to a new price range. It may be a good time to take advantage of the low cost of these radios if you are thinking of getting a new VHF Marine Band radio for your boat.

Hoosier posted 02-02-2013 08:16 PM ET (US)     Profile for Hoosier  Send Email to Hoosier     
The Lowrance LVR-880 was a NMEA 2000 equipped radio and had an interesting feature. It had a stereo headphone jack since it had a built-in FM stereo radio. I found that noise cancelling headphones were quite useful for monitoring the radio traffic while on plane.
jimh posted 02-03-2013 10:57 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Thanks to Dave for mentioning the Lowrance LVR-880 radio. That was an interesting product. Lowrance sold the radio in Europe as a Class-D DSC radio, but modified the radio in the USA to provide an FM Broadcast Band receiver. I assume that they must have modified the design to take the dedicated DSC Channel-70 receiver required for Class-D compliance and use it for an FM Broadcast Band receiver instead.

The Lowrance marketing people must have felt that providing reception of the FM Broadcast Band to boaters as a function on their VHF Marine Band radio was a more attractive feature than providing them with modern digital selective calling features. Once the FCC mandated that all VHF Marine Band radios sold in the USA would have to provide digital selective calling to the Class-D rating, the LVR-880 radio with the FM Broadcast Band receiver was withdrawn from the USA market.

jimh posted 02-05-2013 09:21 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
The several models of new radios from NAVICO are presently available as follows:

LINK-8 should be in stock around February 22

RS12 in stock
RS35 should be in stock in early March

jimh posted 02-24-2013 09:40 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
The actual delivery of a LINK-8 radio seems to have been pushed a few weeks into the future from the estimates mentioned above. I have not heard of anyone actually receiving a LINK-8 radio. I am very interested in hearing some informed comments about the LINK-8 radio from actual users of the radio. It is my hope that the radio portion of the LINK-8 is a top-tier radio. I really like the notion of the radio being on a NMEA-2000 network, but first it has to be an outstanding radio.
jimh posted 02-24-2013 10:02 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Regarding the very first comments that began this discussion, in which it was noted that two of the most prominent names in VHF Marine Band radios, Icom and Standard-Horizon, did not offer any radios with NMEA-2000, I have also been hopeful that the two brands would have something in the works. I thought perhaps that some new products might be announced at the Miami International Boat Show, held a week ago.

As far as I can determine, neither Icom or Standard-Horizon introduced any new VHF Marine Band fixed-mount radios with a NMEA-2000 connection at the boat show. This is a disappointment for me.

In the case of both Standard-Horizon and Icom, it may be understandable that they did not have a new fixed-mount radio to reveal. The past several years have not exactly been boom years for boating. All manufacturers had to stop making older model VHF Marine Band radios that did not meet the FCC mandate for GMDSS DSC Class-D compliance. Most of the engineering effort probably went into revamping their product line to meet that requirement.

Standard-Horizon has pioneered the huge innovation of building an AIS receiver into their VHF Marine Band radios. This probably was the main focus of their engineering and development the past few years.

In the case of Standard-Horizon, they have undergone two changes in ownership in the past several years. The Standard-Horizon brand was part of VERTEX, which made land-mobile commercial radios. Vertex was acquired by MOTOROLA in 2008. Vertex and Motorola used to be competitors in the land-mobile radio market. After just four years under Motorola ownership, Motorola announced it was selling the Marine Radio segment of the Vertex operation to Yaesu Musen in 2012, while Motorola would retain the Vertex land-mobile operation. With all of this corporate change in ownership going on the past several years, I can imagine that planning the operation of the Marine Radio division has become something of a lower priority. I think Standard-Horizon, now that it is back under what looks like a stable corporate parent, will be able to return to its innovative ways in the VHF Marine Radio segment. They have introduced a lot of new products in the hand-held segment.

For NAVICO, the NMEA-2000 engineering is old hat. Lowrance is one of the innovators and early adopters of NMEA-2000. They probably had a lot of engineering background in NMEA-2000, so it was easier for them to bring that knowledge to a new radio design, than for a radio engineer to become knowledgeable in NMEA-2000 and bring NMEA-2000 to a radio.

jimh posted 02-24-2013 10:39 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Also, as far as I can tell, neither Icom or Standard-Horizon have any NMEA-2000 certified products. In order to incorporate NMEA-2000 in a product, the manufacturer has to acquire both the knowledge to design the NMEA-2000 interface in compliance with all the requirements of the standard, and also have the device certified or tested to prove its conformance. This process may be too expensive at the moment for the research and design budgets of Icom and Standard-Horizon.

To acquire all the engineering skill and knowledge to make a successful NMEA-2000 product may take a while if you plan to just grow that skill and knowledge organically in your own engineering personnel. For something specialized like this, it might be expedient to hire an engineer or designer with experience in the discipline. That could be difficult for relatively small electronics firms to do in the past three years of general decline in recreational marine sales.

I really don't know the exact costs, but I would not be surprised if NMEA-2000 testing and certification cost $100,000 to achieve. This is another impediment for smaller companies to enter the NMEA-2000 market.

I do hope that Icom and Standard-Horizon are pursuing NMEA-2000 connectivity for their radios. In the past their brands have been recognized as the best in the recreational boat radio market. With this new strong product development from NAVICO at amazingly low prices, competition is very intense.

Hoosier posted 02-25-2013 11:16 AM ET (US)     Profile for Hoosier  Send Email to Hoosier     
The LVR-880 [a previous radio from Lowrance that had NMEA-2000] is Class D compliant. As for it being withdrawn from the market, I've noticed that Navico and Lowrance products have a market half-life measured in months, not years. They are constantly rolling their products, look at how many generations of the HDS series there have been.With the LVR-880 I suspect that it was withdrawn due to excessive warranty claims, I had to send mine back and it was exchanged.
jimh posted 02-25-2013 07:50 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
I noticed that in this discussion there was no link to the Simrad website for information the RS12 radio. Maybe there wasn't a page there when we started. There is now. Here is the link: RS12-VHF-Radio-en-us.aspx

As mentioned, this radio has NMEA-2000 but does not have an embedded AIS receiver. The MSRP is very modest, only $239, and the radio should be priced at retail discount around $200 to $220. I have not made an extremely careful survey, but I think at that price it will be the least expensive NMEA-2000 radio on the market.

jimh posted 02-26-2013 09:44 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Re the Lowrance LVR-880 and its DSC rating: I am certain that when the radio was first introduced it did not have a Class-D DSC rating for the version sold in the USA. This was really a curious situation, because the LVR-880 was being sold in Europe with a Class-D rating. In the USA it was only specified to meet RTCM SC101 recommendation. Perhaps in the final months of the product life the LVR-880 was bumped to Class-D rating in the USA, but I do not recall hearing of that before.

I used to think that the incorporation of the receiver for the commercial FM Broadcast Band (88-MHz to 108-MHz) was related to the lack of Class-D rating. A Class-D rated radio must have a dedicated receiver that is always monitoring the DSC channel (former Channel-70). Since the USA version of of the LVR-880 had the FM Broadcast Band receiver, I presumed they had used some facility of the radio for that band instead of for a dedicated Channel-70 DSC receiver. But just a day or two ago, someone mentioned they had an LVR-880 European version and it had the FM Broadcast Band receiver and Class-D rating. Perhaps the real hurdle with the radio's rating in the USA was getting it certified with the FCC.

The FCC is not the promulgator of the DSC recommendations. The DSC recommendations seem to be set by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). See

ttp://!!PDF-E. pdf

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) appears to be the ultimate authority on digital selective calling. DSC is part of the General Maritime Distress and Safety at Sea (GMDSS). GMDSS is a set of internationally agreed upon procedures to enhance safety at sea.

The FCC has issued regulations which require that VHF Marine Band radios imported, sold, or installed in the USA have to meet the specifications of the ITU recommendation. See 47 CFR 80.225(a)(4):

However, in December 2011, the FCC then changed its mind and issued a clarification and modification, which said that by January, 2013 (i.e., this year), VHF Marine Band radios imported, sold, or installed in the USA would have to meet a newer recommendation of the ITU, the REC-M.493-13 version. The -13 version of the recommendation was issued in October 2009. See

The -13 specification is available from 493-13-200910-I!!PDF-E.pdf

This January at least two manufacturers recalled product from the selves of retailers in order to verify the firmware in the radios matched the -13 version. The irony of the present situation is the ITU Committee that is making the recommendations (which the FCC turns into legal requirements in the USA) is not completely satisfied with their work in the -13 revisions, and they are apparently planning to remedy some errors and issue a -14 revision.

There is a recent, long, and very interesting discussion of the regulatory minutia on Panbo. See html

In that discussion it is asserted that the LVR-880 was not compliant with the -13 revision. Therefore it is not technically legal to sell the LVR-880 in the USA after January 1, 2013, and Lowrance should have been aware of that since December 2011.

jimh posted 02-26-2013 10:00 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
The technical details of Class D and the product history of the LVR-880 are not really central to the discussion, which is about new products introduced and available for sale which (I presume) meet the present FCC requirements in the USA, and also meet the NMEA requirements for NMEA-2000 networking.

The reason for my strong interest in VHF Marine Band radios with NMEA-2000 is their ability to be easily connected to GNSS receivers and chart plotters, which these days are almost universally provided with NMEA-2000 network connections. The use of NMEA-2000 on both the radio, the GNSS receiver, and the chart plotter makes the connection of the three devices much simpler for the average boater to perform.

Among the many boating discussion forums there is a constant, unstoppable, and endless flow of inquiries from boaters seeking technical assistance in wiring a connection between their GNSS receiver and their radio using NMEA-0183 interfaces. At a much lower frequency of occurrence there are similar questions about wiring the radio to the chart plotter. These inquiries are usually answered by well meaning responders who provide conflicting answers, leading to more discussion. These discussion go on and on, with cryptic suggestions like "connect [some random wire color] to [another different random wire color]." All of that confusion is avoided by having a NMEA-2000 radio, a NMEA-2000 GNSS receiver, and a NMEA-2000 chart plotter.

While it is entirely possible to connect the three devices (or even more) using NMEA-0183, it is not possible for most boaters to accomplish, as evidenced by the very low instance of DSC distress calls with proper position included (which the USCG reported was only one in ten). And it is clearly even less likely that boaters have their DSC radio connected to their chart plotter. In my experience, even among people who have sophisticated installations, the connection of the radio to the chart plotter to allow the display of the position of other vessels by reporting with DSC is very low, probably more like one in 100. With NMEA-2000 in the radio, the rate of connection should be much higher, much simpler, and we will all be much safer as a result.

jimh posted 02-26-2013 11:11 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
ASIDE: The confusion about wire colors in the interconnection of NMEA-0183 devices reminds me of a situation often encountered in B-movie action-adventure cinema in which some sort of bomb is to be deactivated, usually only seconds before a time detonator is to cause the explosion. In the arch-typical movie the bomb expert has been injured and a female heroine has to perform the actual deactivation. Inevitably the tension rises as a pair of wire cutters hovers over a number of small wires. The neophyte bomb de-fuser asks the injured expert for advice on which wire to cut, the RED wire or the BLUE wire. The bomb expert wrinkles his brow, grimaces, and then give the correct answer. Snip! The RED wire is cut. The count-down timer stops. The day is saved.

There seems to be a remarkable congruence in wire colors and movie-script bomb makers, as they always use the same colors in making explosive devices. My first thought about the movie-bomb-makers: how nice of them to employ a variety of different wire colors when making their bomb. These evil geniuses apparently never had the notion of using the same color wire for all the circuits. That would be too clever. No, no, let's adhere to the standard, make the detonator wire that stops everything always be a certain color. As for the one bomb maker in five who goes against the standard, our movie bomb-de-fusing expert will detect that abnormality in the bomb-maker's personality and intuit that on his bombs we must cut the BLUE wire.

But it seems rather odd that among movie bomb makers there would be a consistent adherence to a color code wiring standard. That movie-goers are apparently willing to accept the notion of a color code standard in bomb fabrication seems to suggest that as a general belief, most people expect the color of a wire's insulation to communicate something consistent about its function. And so it must be with NMEA-0183. People expect that a wire color is supposed to reflect something about its function, and wire color codes ought to be used in a consistent manner.

In the case of manufacturers of marine electronics that are supposed to comply with a standard for serial data communication, the NMEA-0183, there is apparently very little adherence to the standard for wire color coding, and wire color codes are used very inconsistently. NMEA is trying to remedy that practice, but until that happens, connecting two devices by relying on their wire color codes is likely to go KABOOM!

jimh posted 03-25-2013 09:59 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
The LINK-8 radio is apparently now available; a few reports of purchase and installation have appeared on a few websites. Lowrance has also posted the operating instructions and installation instructions:

LINK-8 Owner's Manual: Link-8_OM_EN_988-10254-001_w.pdf

LINK-8 Installation Manual: Link-8_IM_EN_988-10249-001_w.pdf

From reading the owner's manual, I get the impression the "Track Your Buddy" feature is implemented by setting the radio to automatically make a remote position poll request to a particular MMSI at a predefined interval of 15, 30, or 60-minutes. The ability to make a remote position poll request to another radio is part of the normal DSC radio feature set; the ability to set the radio to do this automatically at certain intervals is the unique Lowrance "Track Your Buddy" feature.

The owner's manual also mentions that in regard to AIS vessel display, the distance shown will always be in nautical miles.

Lowrance also shows great detail about the data the radio can send or receive via its NMEA interfaces. I excerpt this below:

LINK-8 NMEA-0183 Interface

LINK-8 NMEA-2000 Interface
127250 Vessel Heading
127258 Magnetic Variation
129025 Position, Rapid Update
129026 COG, SOG, Rapid Update
129029 GNSS Position Data
129033 Time, Date
129038 Class A position report (Rx, Tx)
129039 Class B position report (Rx, Tx)
129040 Class B extended position report (Rx, Tx)
129041 AIS Aids to Navigation (AtoN) Report
129283 Cross Track Error
129284 Navigation Error
129285 Navigation Route, Way Point Information
129792 DGNSS Broadcast binary message (Tx)
129793 UTC and date report (Tx)
129794 Class A static and voyage related data (Rx, Tx)
129795 Addressed binary message (tx)
129796 Acknowledge (Tx)
129797 Binary broadcast message (Tx)
129798 SAR Aircraft Position report (Tx)
129799 Radio Frequency, Mode, Power
129800 UTC Date enquiry (Tx)
129801 Addressed safety msg (Rx, Tx)
129802 Broadcast safety msg (Rx, Tx)
129803 Interrogation (Tx)
129804 Assignment Mode Command (Tx)
129805 Data LInk Management message (Tx)
129807 AIS Group Assignment
129808 DSC Call Information
129809 AIS Class B "CS" Static Data Report, Part A
129810 AIS Class B "CS" Static Data Report, Part B
130074 Route and Way Point Service, Way Point List, Way Point Name, Position
130842 AIS and VHF Messages (SIMRAD proprietary for AIS Class B "CS")

The above suggests that there is good integration of the AIS information over NMEA-2000. Some recent postings by early users of the LINK-8 seemed to suggest there were problems with this functionality in the LINK-8. It looks to me like the LINK-8 is quite capable of sending the necessary PGNs on NMEA-2000 for AIS display on a linked chart plotter. Perhaps the chart plotter being used was not ready to obtain the data from NMEA-2000 sources. This is a requisite part of integrating the radio and chart plotter via NMEA-2000 as compared to the more established method of using NMEA-0183 connection.

jimh posted 04-20-2013 10:15 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
The LINK-8 radio mentioned above seems to now be available for purchase and installation from at least a few sources. The retail price of the LINK-8 has seemed to jump. Initially, before it was actually available for delivery, it was listed at a very attractive price, as low as $231 from one supplier. (Mentioned above.) However, now that the radio is really here and for sale, the prices seems to have skyrocketed. It looks like $299 or more is going to be the actual selling price. I guess I should have pre-ordered when it was $231. Darn.

Also, there have been a few first-hand reports about the LINK-8, but in general it seems like the early buyers and installers are a group of dullards that can't figure out much of anything about the radio other than how to turn it on. They have reported some rather inexplicable and unusual problems, which, if these problems were actual defects in the radio, would mean the device was completely worthless and fraudulently represented. I tend to discard those reports and ignore them, on the basis that those buyers must be generally clueless or otherwise lack sufficient sophistication to evaluate the radio.

I am interested in hearing from someone who actually has a LINK-8 and is familiar with the technologies provided by it. Have we any readers who have installed and used a LINK-8? If we do, can we hear from you?

DVollrath posted 04-20-2013 12:19 PM ET (US)     Profile for DVollrath  Send Email to DVollrath     
This little guinea piggy is planning on getting a LINK-8 by the end of May. I'll report my experiences.--Dennis
jimh posted 04-20-2013 12:36 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Excellent. I am confident we will get a profoundly more intelligent first-hand evaluation than any of the ones I so far have read.
bluewaterpirate posted 05-02-2013 08:16 AM ET (US)     Profile for bluewaterpirate  Send Email to bluewaterpirate     
After action report Lowrance Link 8 VHF radio install: Last Saturday I tried to install a Link 8 VHF on a client's boat. The first unit's microphone did not work out of the box, so back he went to West Marine. The second unit's display would not illuminate--all we got was a blank screen. So back to West Marine for another one. Unfortunately they did not have a third one in stock, so we're waiting for it to arrive. As everyone knows, stuff happens; will report back in regards to the third.

I bench test everything before I install so there are no holes or vacant gimbal mounts.


jimh posted 05-02-2013 09:48 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Tom--thanks for the report. This new product launch sounds like it is going a bit rough.
fno posted 05-02-2013 10:09 PM ET (US)     Profile for fno  Send Email to fno     
Any word on availability of the Simrad RS-35? I have been looking at the BOE Marine website, and it maintains that the radio is on backorder still. Very lame rollout from an otherwise great company.
bluewaterpirate posted 05-02-2013 10:55 PM ET (US)     Profile for bluewaterpirate  Send Email to bluewaterpirate     
I'm hearing mid to late May for the RS-35.
jimh posted 06-02-2013 10:50 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
I read a comment from Tom (posted on THT) that the third Lowrance LINK-8 radio delivered to him was also defective, and he is now waiting for a fourth radio. A new product with a track record of three successive cases of the product being defective right out of the box is awful. I had high hopes for the LINK-8, but based on Tom's experience I am not going to be ordering one.

In addition, other users who have received working LINK-8 radios have reported (in various discussions elsewhere) problems in the inter-operation of the LINK-8 with other DSC radios. The entire notion of DSC is that all devices must comply with the international standard, and radios of all brands must be able to inter-operate. These anecdotal reports of the LINK-8 failing to work with other DSC radios are also extremely discouraging. It is hard to judge if the reported problems are due to the operators involved or the radios, but in at least one case it was noted that other non-LINK-8 radios were tested and worked properly.

I was hoping Tom would get a working LINK-8 and be able to give us a report on its performance, as I know Tom's experience with electronics and judge his observations and opinions to be very reliable.

DVollrath posted 06-02-2013 01:23 PM ET (US)     Profile for DVollrath  Send Email to DVollrath     
Now I'm worried. I have a LINK-8 sitting in my basement, and am going to install it next weekend. Fourth time is the charm?


jimh posted 06-02-2013 02:00 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Maybe the vendor Tom is using received a shipment that fell off the back of the delivery truck somewhere along the way.

If NAVICO doesn't right the ship on this new radio roll-out, they're going to be embarrassed and have some angry customers.

bluewaterpirate posted 06-03-2013 09:40 PM ET (US)     Profile for bluewaterpirate  Send Email to bluewaterpirate     
Update: We got a keeper. Everything worked as-advertised. The NMEA-2000 interface works great. I'll take some pictures; my client will take it on the water this weekend.--Tom
jimh posted 06-03-2013 11:08 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
That is encouraging. Let's hope Dennis has the same outcome.
DVollrath posted 06-16-2013 11:26 AM ET (US)     Profile for DVollrath  Send Email to DVollrath     
So far, so good.

I installed the Link-8 yesterday, and was able to turn it on, program in my MMSI, observe receive channel changes on the screen, and listen to weather broadcasts. I was under a metal roof, so no GPS fix was obtained, but both my Lowrance HDS-7 and Link-8 informed me of this.

I'll try more next weekend when I'm out on the water.


DVollrath posted 06-23-2013 11:09 PM ET (US)     Profile for DVollrath  Send Email to DVollrath     
I think I've a good LINK-8.

I had the boat out for several hours this weekend, and had a chance to play with more of the features. I was able to listen to a rescue effort directed by the Canadian Coast Guard out of Victoria, British Columbia while I was south of Orcas Island, Washington.

I also set up the AIS. Pretty neat. It directs the received vessel information to my HDS-7. Looking on the CHART screen, I see AIS-enabled vessels located. Moving the cursor over the icon and selecting takes you to a screen showing all of the vessel data being sent.

I believe having both the Link-8 and HDS-8 from the same manufacturer increased the likelihood of them playing nicely together.


jimh posted 06-24-2013 07:53 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Thanks for the report.

I was ordering some electronic stuff from a well-known marine electronics specialty vendor last week. I was speaking with the store owner, and asked him if he had any problems with LINK-8 radios being returned. He said he hadn't, and he'd sold quite a few of 'em.

SC Joe posted 07-01-2013 11:23 AM ET (US)     Profile for SC Joe  Send Email to SC Joe     

How do you have your Link 8 connected to your HDS unit? Is it via NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000?

jimh posted 07-01-2013 11:52 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
These new NAVICO radios with NMEA-2000 features seem to be experiencing some software problems in interconnecting with other devices. I anticipate that Navico will need to revise the firmware in their radios to resolve these interconnection problems.

I was quite keen to get one of these new, moderately-priced radios with NMEA-2000, but I now think I will sit out this initial round of product release. I will wait for a few more software revisions to come out, and for the manufacturers to work out problems in the NMEA-2000 interface of the radios to GNSS receivers and chart plotters.

DVollrath posted 07-01-2013 12:18 PM ET (US)     Profile for DVollrath  Send Email to DVollrath     
SC Joe,
My Link-8 is connected to the HDS-7 using the NMEA-2000 network. The interoperability of the 2 devices is pretty nice. I hadn't though I'd have much use for the AIS function, but it is a fair bit of fun to see those vessels with AIS transponders on my chartplotter, and to get additional information by selecting with the cursor.


jimh posted 07-26-2013 11:32 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
On Ben Ellison's blog, PANBO, there has been a long-running thread on NMEA-2000 in radios, and, recently, several comments have been posted there regarding software updates to the NAVICO radios we have been discussing here, in this thread. See simrad_rs35_lowrance_link-8_dsc_vhf_aisrx_n2k_yes.html

The comments seem mostly about the SIMRAD RS35 radio, but they also seem to be in regard to the Lowrance LINK-8 radio, too. The gist of the remarks seems to be that NAVICO has just recently issued a significant firmware revision for their VHF Marine Band radios with NMEA-2000 interfaces that is intended to fix a lot of bugs.

I think I am going to wait a few more weeks for the radios with new firmware to get into the distribution channel, and then give the LINK-8 a try.

There is also a notice that beginning with a certain level of revision, the NAVICO radios may be possible to update from a NAVICO multi-function display. For example, it should be possible to apply a firmware update to the radio from a multi-function device like a Lowrance HDS. This method has been used in the past by Lowrance to apply firmware updates to other devices on a NMEA-2000 network. The update firmware is provided as a special file, and the file is mounted on the HDS operating system through use of a memory card slot on the HDS. This sounds like a good advancement, too, as, no doubt, there may be a few more bug fixes coming out for these radios.

jimh posted 08-19-2013 09:13 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Based on some comments from well-informed and highly-skilled users, the field update of the NAVICO radios with NMEA-2000 and AIS to new firmware has not been easily accomplished. It appears that NAVICO is suggesting owners of these radios with the original firmware should send them back to NAVICO for installation of the firmware updates.

On the basis of these reports and others (see above), I think I am going to sit out this boating season with my current radios. Perhaps by next spring all the bugs will be found in the radio firmware and a new, just out-of-the-box radio will work flawlessly.

Cf.: 518599-simrad-rs35-issue-5.html

6992WHALER posted 08-20-2013 09:57 PM ET (US)     Profile for 6992WHALER  Send Email to 6992WHALER     
Or Standard Horizon will produce a new NMEA-2000 unit with a build in AIS receiver, just to mess up your plans.
DVollrath posted 08-25-2013 03:23 PM ET (US)     Profile for DVollrath  Send Email to DVollrath     
I just had my first opportunity to try out the TX function of my Lowrance Link-8 on the rendezvous yesterday. I exchanged transmissions with Marko888 from Bay Head marina to Thatcher Pass in the San Juan Islands of WA State. It is a distance of about 7.5 miles as the gull flies, and over several island masses. On my end, the conversation was very clear.

At this point in time, I am very pleased with the radio and its interoperability with my HDS-7.


Beaux posted 11-25-2013 09:34 PM ET (US)     Profile for Beaux    
Any further reports of a successful fix for the link 8 radio? Is the functionality fixed with the firmware updates,etc?

I am interested in the nmea 2000 AIS receiver and nmea 2000 DSC functionality of the link 8 with a garmin 547xs.

DVollrath posted 11-25-2013 09:56 PM ET (US)     Profile for DVollrath  Send Email to DVollrath     
Mine still works fine, although thankfully I have never needed to use the DSC distress modes. The VHF transceiver, weather receiver, and AIS functions are all as advertised.

I have not upgraded firmware, nor do I see new firmware available on the Lowrance site.

I paid $280 for it.


Beaux posted 11-25-2013 11:39 PM ET (US)     Profile for Beaux    
That's good news. Thanks. Sounds like radio functions well with same brand chart plotters on nmea 2000 network.

My only other question is.. How nice does this radio plays with other brand chart plotters , specifically Garmin? I know the nmea2000 network data "should be" universal and the brand shouldn't make a difference but the above posts make it seem that this is not necessarily the case.

Has anybody read anything on troubles or success lately? I read a few different sites but have seen nothing specific or recent. Thanks again

jimh posted 11-26-2013 10:16 AM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
There is nothing about the NMEA-2000 protocol that requires that all devices interoperate with each other. Being a NMEA-2000 device just permits one to connect the device to a network without causing harm to the network.

Each device should provide a list of the NMEA-2000 parameter groups that it can send or receive. If a device says it can send a particular NMEA-2000 parameter group, and a second device on that same network says it can receive that parameter group, it is reasonable to assume that the first device can send that data to the network and the second device will receive it from the network.

There are many, many NMEA-2000 parameter groups, including ones that are specific to an individual manufacturer.

In the case of a VHF Marine Band radio with DSC and NMEA-2000, the radio should list the parameter groups it can send or receive.

If you wish to use the radio with a chart plotter, the chart plotter should list its NMEA-2000 parameter groups, and, if the chart plotter can receive or send an appropriate group from or to the radio, the two devices should interoperate.

jimh posted 11-26-2013 01:27 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
For more about listings of NMEA-2000 parameter group numbers (PGN's) and what a device can send or receive, see my prior article on this topic as it relates to a specific device, the Lowrance HDS series:

HDS NMEA-2000 Parameters; NMEA-0183 Sentences

The NMEA organization also has a recently publication outlining some problems in the implementation of PGN's for digital signal calling (DSC) radios. See

Technical Corrigendum TC#2000 20130720
NMEA 2000 PGN 129808 DSC Call Information 2000_20130720%20%20dsc%20technical%20corrigendum.pdf

jimh posted 11-26-2013 01:32 PM ET (US)     Profile for jimh  Send Email to jimh     
Regarding DSC radio data sent on NMEA-2000, the data seems to be sent in a single parameter group number, 129808. That parameter is defined in july%202010%20nmea2000_v1-301_app_b_pgn_field_list.pdf

See the folio marked "Page 40 of 52".

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